PROCESS SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN OIL AND GAS PROCEDURE: PAST, PRESENT AND LONG TERM DIRECTION 1 ) 0Introduction
Procedure safety management (PSM) has brought greater focus in the gas and oil industry as a result of major memorable accidents which have occurred within the industry plus the severity with their impacts in stakeholders. The Bhopal gas tragedy which occurred in January 1984 through the release of methyl Isocyanates (MIC) wherever over two thousand persons died as well as the Flixborough catastrophe which likewise happened on 1974 where about 28 workers had been killed and thirty six personnel suffered from significant injuries notified the essence of PSM in the procedures of not only oil and gas activities but in various other process industries (Hackitt 2010). The application of PSM has been steered by companies like the American Institute of Chemical Technical engineers; Center pertaining to Process Basic safety, as a management system to manage hazardous processes. PSM is a proactive approach which seeks to distinguish and manage hazards, risks and protection during operational activities to be able to prevent method and equipment failure, key injuries and fatalities (Harry 2003). It really is aimed at producing plants and processes to avoid the release of highly harmful chemicals (HHC) during procedures which could cause dangerous results, fires and explosions (Bureau Veritas 2010). PSM addresses matters that relates to operability, stability and quality of processes and its particular merit includes more than prevention of accidents to enhance productivity, quality improvement, waste and price reduction (Cockburn 2011). The mention of major accidents inside the oil and gas industry brings one particular question to mind- what went wrong? And in response, it is evident that their particular occurrences will be connected to problems concerning PSM systems. This information discusses method safety administration in coal and oil operations: earlier times, present and future guidelines. Referrals to major accidents will be made to demonstrate the trend of process safety in coal and oil operations. 2 . 0Process Safety Management in Past Functions of Oil and Gas Companies The oil and gas sector has knowledgeable numerous catastrophic events which their situations could have been averted. A greater percentage of injuries that occur during businesses are method related incidents of which their extreme impact has led to the drains of financial resources and reputation of the majority of oil and gas businesses. A typical case cited is a Piper Alpha disaster in 1984 plus the explosion by British Petroleum (BP) Texas Refinery in 2005.
2 . 1Oil and Gas Companies Mistook Process Basic safety for Personal Safety Most oil and gas companies targeted largely upon personal security than process safety and for that reason; mistakenly perceived that documents of not any loss time injury, zero recordable harm frequency had been indicators of standard process safety performance (Baker et al 2007). Hackitt (1993) comments which the insufficiency dimension of method safety generated the think that rarely do new incidents occur nevertheless accidents happen to be repeatedly happening because people leave the company and take the know-how about process safety with these people. From this, it may be deduced the fact that knowledge about process safety was lacking within the industry. Again, oil and gas corporations perceived security to be concerned with personal protection but not associated with their operations. This could be that they relied very much on information system manufacturers' provided of the systems as well as for that subject failed to offer additional basic safety in their devices and procedures. 2 . 2Poor Process Security Culture and Unsafe Function Practices
A typical example may be cited in the events encircling the Piper Alpha disaster where a pain relief valve inside the pump was removed for maintenance and a blank was loosely mounted as a replacement of the relief control device on the pipes flange (CCPS 2005). In addition , the tradition of disregarding near does not show for and incidents as...